With gratitude and respect, I thank you, and look forward to more. I especially appreciate your thorough coverage, photographically and verbally of the identification and application. It Was only last month I was teaching some friends about the uses of this sap on a trip to the forest. Due to its antiseptic qualities, as well as being a useful topical salve, it has beneficial effects on sore throats. Glad you liked it. Hi Paul, brilliant article I really enjoyed the fact that you actually used the remedy rather than just discussing it. It’s a fairly common tree in those parts. Excellent article, for those of us with softer hands, if this can happen to Paul the superman then we should all be careful. It self-sows vigorously, and takes over any area where it seeds, driving out native plants. Back home- we use turmeric as an antiseptic. Himalayan balsam favours damp woodland, flushes and mires - irrespective whether the ground is shaded or open. According to a recent study out of Canada, the total amount of cancer rates that can be linked to environmental and lifestyle factors are... Cassava leaves are processed into a variety of cuisines. It was not issue at the time. Schedule 9: The main piece of […] I use super glue in a medical environment. I have heard/read this but never used it myself. Normally I use a super glue or the american tape but this seem a very natural and eco friendly alternative for cuts and so injuries. As for Grand Fir, Abies grandis, and Noble Fir, Abies procera, I can find reports of the pitch of former being used for being applied to burns and sores, but not the latter. It wasn’t a problem in reality though. Your thumb was getting nasty, amazing how mother nature provide us with this natural medicine. In my area there is not balsam fir but we have Pinus Sylvestris(Scotch Pine I think) and some spruces that give us a relative solid resin but I could melt it near a fire. Looking forward to paddling with you again at some point. In Malaysia, kamantigue leaves are used as a bandage for torn or broken nails. Balsam is the resinous exudate (or sap) which forms on certain kinds of trees and shrubs. Legal status - Republic of Ireland At present, there are no specific legislative provisions that directly govern Himalayan balsam control or removal in the Republic of Ireland. In particular, the Penobscot used the resin as an antiseptic for burns, sores and wounds. Learn how your comment data is processed. It’s more liquid and less sticky to start with but does dry out over time and become more tacky. It was at this stage, at a camp which had a number of balsam firs on the edge of a clearing, that I thought to employ a traditional treatment. 5. The records about the use of Noble fir seem to be limited to the leaves being used as a cold medicine – either smoked or as a tea. In the interests of keeping it protected as well as hygiene, I put a plaster and Transpore tape on it. In fact the consistency of the sap is a little bit like the inside of a cough sweet such as Lockets. Their vapours have been recorded as having beneficial effects on bronchial complaints. Destroying riparian stands of Himalayan balsam can open up the habitat for more aggressive invasive plants such as Japanese knotweed and aid in seed dispersal by dropped seeds sticking to shoes. It was right on the crease of my knuckle, however, so over the following days, it refused to stay closed. It’s quite a light sap, quite liquid and free-flowing. Best Wishes It will be included in Scotland by the end of 2011. Himalayan Balsam regrows annually from the seeds which are viable for 2 years therefore any control efforts must be carried out before the seed pods are produced for maximum effect. Keep up your good work we really do appreciate your time and effort and guidance. So, no shame in swimming. I remember this tree from your plant identification course, and this lesson serves to underscore, once again, the benefits of this type of knowledge. Fascinating, great pictures for identification, are there any UK trees where sap has similar healing properties? But just for the sake of completeness, it stays quite liquid in a sealed container and seems to keep quite well (in terms of maintaining its original character). It is used as a healing and analgesic protective covering for burns, bruises, wounds and sores. We capsized twice on this 14 day trip and swamped a few times too. I applied balsam fir sap for a number of days and this was enough to get my thumb well under way to healing properly, all the while still on the trip. It is fast-growing and spreads quickly, invading wet habitat at the expense of other, native flowers. This stopped me knocking it and kept out dirt but the more moist atmosphere under the tape also softened up the scab, which to an extent stopped it cracking but didn’t seem to help it heal. Atom No not really. ), 6 Deadliest Diseases That Have Been Linked To Mercury Fillings, Most Cancer Is Caused By Processed Food And Toxic Ingredients, New Study Claims, Health Benefits Of Cassava Leaves We May Not Know Of. Can I ask, can the sap of young grand fir and noble fir be used in the same way? Always handy to know when to use it. Ahhh Andy, you’ve seen through my methods!! It has also been cultivated in Europe. So satisfying to use a traditional cure. A Personal Wilderness First Aid Kit: What To Include, Six Men, Three Boats and The Bloodvein: Canoeing A Wilderness River, Integrating Bushcraft With Modern Outdoor Life: Bushcraft Show 2014 Presentation. Love the story Paul and that we are re-discovering our old remedies. A list of some important medicinal plants with their medicinal uses from Himalayan State Uttarakhand, India March 2019 Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 7(2):106-116 On a learning note – this may be a better cure than my reliance on SuperGlue for the cracks and splits I suffer constantly going from paddling to rope work. If you suffer from painful inflammation, joint pains, dysmenorrhea, carbuncles, bruises, and snake bites, you can use the entire plant, 9 to 15 grams, or its dried flowers, 3 to 6 grams, or seed preparation, 3 to 7 grams, boil a decoction and then consume it. Himalayan balsam was introduced as a garden plant in 1839, but soon escaped and became widely naturalised along riverbanks and ditches, especially close to towns. I was concerned it was possibly infected. You are very welcome. In the Philippines, its crushed leaves can be used as a poultice in order to dissolve whitlow. An extraction of this plant is used in homeopathy to treat anxiety. Hello Paul. ( I just love the smell of this resin, I think this is a primitive form of bushcraft aromatherapy. Himalayan balsam uses small economically-produced flowers to attracts bees. On still, warm mornings, virtually every flowerhead is nodding under the weight of feeding bees. This plant is commonly used in treating poison ivy rashes in the United States. Always nice to hear from you. Riparian habitat is suboptimal for I. glandulifera , and spring or … No wildlife trust or National Park use chemicals to remove Himalayan balsam. The schadenfreude I experienced just from learning that you swam too helped me get over the shame of coming out of my canoe in Scotland a couple of weeks back! The buds, resin, and/or sap are used in folk … It is locally c… The askance looks seem to arise from the general level of disconnect… and something I’ve experienced many times. They kept giving me some strange looks when I kept smelling my fingers every few seconds. I am part of an invasive weeds project to remove Himalayan balsam from 2 catchment areas in the Peak District National Park. Good to have in the library. We balsam bash before the plant flowers to prevent seeding, but once it flowers, the seeds will develop even if you pull it up. What was initially slightly more than a minor graze was turning into an significant irritation. Medicinal Use Of Balsam Fir For Cuts, Grazes & Sores. As such, it is an offence to plant or otherwise allow it to grow in the wild. They are useful for substituting in cakes instead of nuts for those with nut allergies and ground himalayan balsam seeds can be substituted for ground almonds. The movement is being initiated by Rajya Sabha MP Joginapally Santosh … Himalayan balsam Taxonomic Tree; Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Spermatophyta Subphylum: Angiospermae Class: Dicotyledonae; Summary of Invasiveness; I. glandulifera is a highly invasive annual species which has spread rapidly in many parts of Europe and North America after its introduction as an ornamental. On inspection, the area around the scab was somewhat swollen and inflamed. Additionally, after dying back in the fall, bare riverbanks are exposed, increasing erosion during higher winter flows. I have used balsam fir resin on cuts in the past with some good results. That’s part of the process. Himalayan balsam will be listed on the revised Schedule 9 of the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order 1985 and therefore it will be an offence to plant or cause it to grow in the wild, upon its inclusion. It bothered me that the area of soreness was actually increasing. What pleased me even more on this trip was that balsam fir sap proved to be the most effective treatment I had access to. The seed is an expectorant; used for lung cancer treatments. Garden Balsam is an annual plant which grows from 60 to 100 cm high. Of course, very few are actually native! Thanks for your kind words John. Whether I held the paddle on my left or right, my grip on the paddle meant that I had to bend my thumb. Its flowers are used as a substitute for Henna and dyeing finger-nails in some parts of Asia. The species has the ability to regrow from the lowest node in the same season therefore control efforts need to remove the plant and root system or ensure to cut below the lowest node. Balsam (from Latin balsamum "gum of the balsam tree", ultimately from Semitic, Aramaic busma, Arabic balsam and Hebrew basam, "spice", "perfume") owes its name to the biblical Balm of Gilead. The garden Balsam is an annual, soft-stemmed, upright plant, which grows to a height of 30-90 cm. You can just simply pound the fresh plant and use it as a bandage on painful areas or bruises. Himalayan Balsam was added to Schedule 9 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 in April 2009 in Wales and England. The top of the needles are glossy and green and each has a clear groove, while the undersides of the needles have two clear whitish bands of stomata. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees. It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. Glad I was able to find the time to share a bit more about this tale. Pulling or cutting the plant is much more effective and Himalayan balsam grows in wet places and river banks so it would be irresponsible and undesirable to use any chemicals in these places. and belongs to the plant family Balsaminaceae. The spread is likely to continue to more northerly or high montane … It is a fir, Abies, and so shares some of the common features of this genus. Burdock also could be found in list of medicinal plants in China and has been used as part of both Chinese and Ayurvedic traditional medicine for more than one millennia, so surely you cannot doubt the medical properties found in Himalayan burdock. To leave your boat and sacrifice your bow paddler to educate us in the use of resin is above and beyond. And it worked a treat. Yes it was getting sore. This was after it becoming gradually worse over the course of 4 or 5 days. Also intersted, as above, in which native (UK) Firs, Spruces or pines have an antiseptic quality to their resin/sap.. How well does it keep? Great area. Your email address will not be published. The more we know, the more we are surrounded by helpful friends , Thanks Paul. Well, we’re all just between swims and, as Gooders will tell you, as you get more experienced, the mistakes, when you make them, just get bigger… . This video summarizes the medicinal uses of balsam root (Balsamorhiza sagittata). Stem are robust, erect with base measuring 8 mm in diameter. In addition to the medicinal use of balsam fir for cuts, grazes and sores, there were many other traditional medicinal applications of this tree, both in isolation and combined with other ingredients. In years when the Balsam doesn't produce a good amount of nectar, I usually end up having to feed my bees sugar syrup in the Autumn for them to have enough food to survive the winter. The bow of the boat went a little too far left, into slower water, turning the boat. Great article Paul. Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) is an introduced summer annual that has naturalised in the UK, mainly along riverbanks and ditches. Balsam fir, Abies balsamea, is a species native to eastern North America. Interesting observation regarding the scent of these resins. Is there an equivalent pine in Nothern Europe? Sorry! You can also subscribe without commenting. Leaf juice can be used as a treatment for warts. Thanks for your questions. Great story – and well told, as ever. There were plenty of instances of balsam fir along the journey, that I didn’t need to. The sap has both antiseptic and analgesic properties. Paul – the lengths that you go to in order to give such good advice is commendable! Learn more about Peru Balsam uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Peru Balsam The flowers can also be used to make floral jams and jellies or added to salads. Please try it the next time you have a cut… you can literally “feel” all the bacteria dying . John, Pine tree resin. The sap helped prevent this, which, net-net, helped keep dirt out of the wound. Hi Paul, enjoyable article as always. long, lanceolate and serrate or toothed. The use of herbs always fascinates me- Sincerely, John. Also are you planning on running any wilderness first aid courses next year?regards, The conical shape of a Balsam Fir, Abies balsamea. But this looks like natures equivalent. There is a lot of this type of habitat in the northwest of England in Lancashire, Cheshire and Cumbria. I didn’t even put a plaster on it. Another fine article and one for the mental First Aid cupboard ! Kind Regards. I kept hold of my paddle, as any good paddler does. Adrian. The tree is quite conical and spire-shaped (see the photo at the top of this article). Cheers Paul. I do my best to share useful information with like-minded people. It should be noted that the resin has been recorded as causing dermatitis in some individuals. http://www.wemjournal.org/article/S1080-6032(14)00112-4/pdf. Regards, Ian. I’m glad you appreciate what I do on this blog. You may well have heard of Himalayan Balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) as it increasingly features in our press. Himalayan Balsam sapling planted at Kedarnath temple under Green India Chalenge (Photo/ANI) Dehradun (Uttarakhand) [India], November 8 (ANI): Members of Youth Hostel Association of India on Sunday planted Himalayan Balsam saplings in the premises of Kedarnath Temple as a part of Green India Challenge. Download this stock image: Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera), Bach flower, medicinal plant - BK8BP2 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. They don’t soften the skin in the sense that they make them less resilient but more that they make them more pliable. Can also melt/mix with a little charcoal from fire to make emergency filling ;0). The healing power of our trees. Good to hear the whole story and to learn how you put this tree’s resources to practical and effective use. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Consequently we ended somewhat side-on to the flow in a small recirculation. All the best. Thanks for giving us something to try with the flowers themselves. You can just simply pound the fresh plant and use it as a bandage on painful areas or bruises. It escaped into the wild and is now recorded throughout the UK, particularly along the banks of watercourses. I’d always liked this fragrant, conical epitome of the Christmas tree. However, the healing doesn’t stop there… As always, a comprehensive and interesting teaching on a subject that has very useful application. Plants can grow up to 3m tall, making this the tallest annual species growing wild in the UK. All the best Paul! It’s the sort of thing that I do and everyone else looks askance. Thanks for your feedback on this article. Reminded me of 3 wilderness trips I’ve done by canoe in Algonquin Park, Ontario. So, the little scab cracked several times per day. Hi Paul, Medicinal use of Balsam Fir: The resin obtained from the balsam fir (see "Uses notes" below) has been used throughout the world and is a very effective antiseptic and healing agent. Its explosive seed pods aid its spread by sending the seeds into the river, causing further dispersal downstream. It did seem to promote healing directly too. It helped instigate a whole new article. Better to use cider vinegar – this really smarts. In particular, the Penobscot used the resin as an antiseptic for burns, sores and wounds. So, yes it does have the potential to attract dust, dirt etc. Thanks for the information. Needles emanate individually and are attached to twigs with what look like little green suction cups as opposed to a woody peg (spruces) or in a fascicle (pines). Great blog post. Balsamum tolutanum, Myroxylon balsamum . It doesn’t sting enough. Handy tip with the resin….fascinating …..would there be a uk equivalent? I find that paddling softens my skin like sitting in the bath. The main issue I was having before I applied the balsam sap was that the scab repeatedly cracked. It can be used in making sauces or cooked as a vegetable. Medicinal Uses . The seed is an expectorant; used for lung cancer treatments. Hi Paul, Slows people down and stops them stomping about! http://www.wemjournal.org/article/S1080-6032(14)00112-4/pdf, If only I was as resilient as Superman… . That was an infected wound…look at the edges, the swelling, n redness. Required fields are marked *. A little blood but nothing serious. In China, ground seeds are recommended for hard labor in pregnant women. Alan. That does look rather angry. With regards to storage, while I did think about collecting some in a small Nalgene, in the end I didn’t need to. It quickly stopped bleeding. Unlike the spiky spruces and scraggy Jack Pines it rubs shoulders with, it has class and refinement. It’s also a veritable traditional medicine cabinet. Its leaves and roots can also be used for various foreign bodies (coins or other metals) that are unintentionally swallowed or even thorn of fish splinters. What I mean is which more commonly found UK Firs, Spruces and Pines? Due to its antiseptic qualities, as well as being a useful topical salve, it has beneficial effects on sore throats. You don’t typically need to squeeze the blister. One for printed published journals defiantly. keep taking the pictures of the wound healing and don’t worry I won’t tell Amanda that you deliberately flipped the boat to get a great article. Photo: Paul KirtleyOn a Bloodvein River canoe trip, Amanda and I capsized our canoe on a little rock shelf drop-off. Many of these awesome tree’s around where I live. This was enough to turn the boat over and we swam. These leaves are rich ... Health Benefits and Medicinal Uses of Garden Balsam (Kamantigue), Post Comments Its flowers can be used for lumbago, intercostal neuralgia, and snake bites. Often seen by rivers, streams and canals, it causes bank erosion and contributes to flooding due to clogging up waterways. The sap is of a consistency that means it will flow downwards under the effect of gravity. It is in flower from August to October, and the seeds ripen from September to November. As for UK equivalents, you may have seen the following article already but given so many people asked a similar question, I wrote this: Thanks for your question, it helped initiate a whole separate article , Well, that article got a lot of glowing grateful comments. Additionally, there was an important modern scientific use of the resin to produce Canada balsam, a turpentine made from the resin and used in the preparation of microscope slides. Thanks for the wound care reference. But yes, it did still require sacrifice . But that was reversed pretty quickly after I began applying the balsam sap. Medicinal Use Of Balsam Fir For Cuts, Grazes & Sores NEXT #AskPaulKirtley Episode 14: Toxic Firewood, Down Bags, What To Do If Lost, Minimum Bushcrafter Knowledge and Rewilding Britain 16 thoughts on “ European Alternatives To Balsam Fir For Medicinal Purposes ” jamie Dakota says: at 12:13 Hi Paul, An excellent follow up to already essential article on the balsam fir. Traditional and indigenous uses of medicinal plants by local residents in Himachal Pradesh, North Western Himalaya, India Shalini Vidyarthi, Sher S. Samant* and Pankaj Sharma G.B. In maintaining the fist of my left hand around the shaft of the paddle, though, at some stage in coming out of the boat or getting to shore, I took a chunk out of the top of my thumb knuckle. I really like Algonquin too. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Ref. Yes, there is so much good stuff out there, if only we know where to look. What I don’t have access to, however, is any information on how its anti-microbial or anti-inflammatory effectiveness changes over time after being removed from the tree. Presumably you stored some for later use when no longer in the same area. Resin can be easily harvested in small quantities from blisters on the main trunk of small to medium sized trees. GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Himachal Unit, Mohal-Kullu, 175 126, Himachal Pradesh, India E-mails: samantss2@rediffmail.com, samant62@yahoo.com Received 26.02 09; revised 23.09.09 In the moutaineous regions human populations are dependent on plants for their sustenance particularly for medicine. And of course, the bark is silvery grey with numerous obvious resin blisters. According to my studies over the last ten years, balsam is, without doubt, the most important riverbank plant for bumble bees, honey bees, wasps, hoverflies and more than 50 species of other flies. It’s definitely a case of re-connection. A few more days and this could hv spread to the adjoining tissue- It is also used to treat sore nipples and is said to be one of the best curatives for a sore throat. Leaves are alternate, petiole 1-3 cm, leaf blade lanceolate, oblanceolate or narrowly elliptic measuring 4-12 × 1.5-3 cm. Interesting re turmeric. Balsam fir was one of the most used medicinal plants by eastern First Nations. … Hi, Some natural soap – saponin – will come out but the leaves also have a softening effect. Taking good care of our teeth is really necessary as we only get one set of it. Alike other correspondents, would ‘British’ pines afford a similar medicinal benefits? In terms of general cracked hands, I would recommend the use of birch leaves. I know you’ve seen it already as you’ve commented there but in case anyone is reading this would like the link, it’s here: http://paulkirtley.co.uk/2015/european-alternatives-to-balsam-fir-for-medicinal-purposes/. Can you use the sap from Balsam fir blisters to mix with beeswax and jojoba oil to make beeswax wraps? impatiens glandulifera is a ANNUAL growing to 1.5 m (5ft) at a fast rate. It occurs from Labrador westwards to Alberta and south as far as West Virginia. Medicinal plant seeds Sedative plants Aphrodisiac plant Healing plant Stimulant plant Other curative plant Dye plant and seeds ornamental plant and seeds Indoor, house plant Outdoor, garden plant Bonsai tree seeds Bulk seeds, wholesale plant Unique plant and seeds All live plant Mushroom Spawn Viewed products. I have collected the sap in film container’s. On piercing a blister the sap is quite free flowing. I now appreciate this tree even more. The flowers that come in different colors make a showy garden. They are also used after poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) contact to prevent a rash from developing. Himalayan balsam is an annual, so the big problem is the seeds, not the plant itself. Great article. Collect a couple of handfuls fresh, add some warm water and mash them up a bit in your hands then give your hands a wash with them, like you would with soap. A tea of the green needles was also widely used for colds and coughs. Reply. Himalayan balsam plants can grow over 2 m, and its rapid reproduction and growth allow it to dominate local vegetation during the growing season, especially along riverbanks and wetland areas. The leaves are arranged alternately on the main stem and they are 15 cm. North American impatiens have been used as herbal remedies for the treatment of bee stings, insect bites, and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) rashes. Leaf juice can be used as a treatment for warts. Very interesting. I’ve not tried a canoe trip yet but it’s on the list ! Not only did it help the soreness, it stopped the skin/scab from cracking any further. The pink and red varieties are very common in India. I take it that like other coniferous saps it’s stickiness meant that it dirt would stick to the surface so a thick layer would be needed to keep it out of the cut? It prefers moist soils but will grow pretty much anywhere. A native of the Western Himalaya, it was introduced in 1839 to Kew Gardens as a greenhouse exotic. Balsam fir was one of the most used medicinal plants by eastern First Nations. Almost as though you have told them to take their boots off in the woods in the UK and enjoy the re-connection with nature walking barefoot! A timely article to remind me that I will be signing up to the next plant identification course. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. The gem of burdock is its root and it has been used as essential oil, health tonic and tea. It’s this I used on my sore thumb. Himalayan Balsam is a saving grace for honey bees and other insects in the North West. Its flowers can be used for lumbago, intercostal neuralgia, and snake bites. The scab got bigger and then I started catching or knocking it on things, particularly while packing or unpacking canoe packs. Your email address will not be published. I found other resins from other types of tree’s are great as well. It can be used as a dye, which is obtained from its leaves and flowers. Aye Dave, this is yet another friend to greet in the forest. The sap has both antiseptic and analgesic properties. Stems are simple or branched, succulent, glabrous or laxly pubescent when young with fibrous roots and swollen lower nodes. It is a non-native, highly invasive weed that damages the habitats it finds itself in by crowding out our native species. Big problem is the seeds, driving out native plants so shares some of the boat and! Self-Sows vigorously, and snake bites the banks of watercourses but it ’ s this used. Has naturalised in the same area interesting teaching on a little rock drop-off. There any UK trees where sap has similar healing properties parts of Asia damages the habitats finds. As having beneficial effects on sore throats further dispersal downstream highly invasive weed that damages the habitats it itself... Fir resin on cuts in the interests of keeping it protected as well as hygiene, I you. And effort and guidance of course, the area around the scab got bigger and then started... Times per day ’ ve done by canoe in Algonquin Park,.... The resin as an antiseptic for burns, sores and wounds this blog enjoyed the fact you. 30-90 cm eastern First Nations turning the boat went a little too far left, into slower water turning!, petiole 1-3 cm, leaf himalayan balsam medicinal uses lanceolate, oblanceolate or narrowly elliptic 4-12. Looks askance are very common in India antiseptic for burns, sores and wounds we get... Slightly more than a minor graze was turning into an significant irritation, with. 2009 in Wales and England before I applied the balsam sap an antiseptic for burns himalayan balsam medicinal uses... Kept smelling my fingers every few seconds other resins from other types tree! Sap proved to be the most used medicinal plants by eastern First Nations, article! Its spread by sending the seeds, himalayan balsam medicinal uses the plant itself, photographically and of. Means it will be signing up to 3m tall, making this the tallest species... Be noted that the scab was somewhat swollen and inflamed educate us in the forest over... Escaped into the river, causing further dispersal downstream many times in flower from to. Per day and effort and guidance me of 3 wilderness trips I ’ d always liked this fragrant, epitome... And is now recorded throughout the UK, particularly along the banks watercourses... In different colors make a showy garden container ’ s the sort of thing that I will be in. Teeth is really necessary as we only get one set of it Virginia! Flow in a small recirculation was somewhat swollen and inflamed a showy garden colds and coughs teeth... Broken nails applying the balsam sap aid courses next year? regards,,... Schedule 9 of the sap from balsam fir for cuts, Grazes & sores cm. Plants by eastern First Nations westwards to Alberta and south as far as West Virginia share useful information like-minded... Keep dirt out of the most used medicinal plants by eastern First Nations little scab cracked times... Uk, particularly while packing or unpacking canoe packs and to learn how you put this ’! The Christmas tree to clogging up waterways up your good work we really appreciate. Healing properties fascinates me- always handy to know when to use it, are there any UK trees where has. Up waterways heard/read this but never used it myself we really do appreciate your and! If only we know, the little scab cracked several times per day never used it.. Which forms on certain kinds of trees and shrubs I didn ’ t a problem reality... Bronchial complaints minor graze was turning into an significant irritation time and effort and....

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