The plant is a biennial, the stem 1 to 5 feet high, stout and strong, more or less woolly with narrow, spinous wings. An infusion of the leaves has been used in the treatment of caked breasts. The flowers are a beautiful purple and, like those of the Artichoke, have the property of curdling milk. The leaves are green on both sides, downy on the veins beneath, narrow, cut into numerous lobes and very prickly. Read more for the benefits and mechanisms of action. Milk thistle might lower blood sugar in people who have type 2 diabetes. The Marian, or Milk Thistle, is perhaps the most important medicinally among the members of this genus, to which all botanists do not, however, assign it, naming it Silybum Marianum. ), 'therefore I counsell all that have Gardens to nourish it, that they may have it always to their own use, and the use of their neighbours that lacke it.'. The TUBEROUS PLUME THISTLE (C. tuberosus). From the presence of this covering, the Thistle has obtained its popular name of Cotton or Woolly Thistle. A small plant, 12 to 18 inches high, with fibrous roots; a cottony stem, giving off runners; few leaves, mostly radical, soft, wavy, fringed with minute spines, not decurrent; and generally solitary heads, with adpressed, slightly cottony bracts and crimson florets. Don't knock it. The flowers are purplish-crimson, not very large, sometimes clustered three or four together on short stalks. A decoction of the root is astringent and diminishes discharges from mucous membranes. field thistle. The flowers are straw yellow, the inner florets purplish, the heads distinguished by the strawcoloured, glossy, radiating long inner scales of the involucre, or outer floral cup. ---Medicinal Action and Uses---It has been used for the same purposes as the Common Star Thistle. It’s been suggested that the antioxidant effects of silymarin may … The outer bracts are very prickly. This kind of fodder was formerly used to a great extent in Scotland before the introduction of special green crops for the purpose. The benefits of milk thistle extracts are demonstrated by reducing the incidence of changes in the liver due to alcohol consumption, alleviating symptoms in those with alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis, and by improved liver function tests. And the native thistles don't have very sharp spines like the invasive ones do. Many of the other Thistles may be used as substitutes for the Blessed Thistle. endstream endobj startxref Centaurea Calcitrapa, the Common Star Thistle, occurs in waste places and by roadsides, but is somewhat rare and chiefly found in south-east England. Perhaps one of the most noxious weeds in the home garden, Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) has a reputation for being impossible to get rid of.We won’t lie to you, Canada thistle control is difficult and requires a significant amount of effort to be successful, but the effort you put into controlling Canada thistle will pay off when you have a garden that is free from this annoying weed. The Order of the Thistle, which claims, with the exception of the Garter, to be the most ancient of our Orders, was instituted in 1540 by James V, and revived by James VII of Scotland and Second of England, who created eight Knights in 1687. Other Thistles are the SLENDER-FLOWERED THISTLE (C. pycnocephalous) which has stems 2 to 4 feet high, slightly branched, hoary, with broad continuous, deeply-lobed, spinous wings; leaves cottony underneath; heads many, clustered, cylindrical, small; florets pink. This handsome plant is not unworthy of a place in our gardens and shrubberies and was formerly frequently cultivated. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, flies, Lepidoptera (Moths & Butterflies), beetles. Same type of content with added weirdness. Field thistle is the host plant for the painted lady butterfly — its caterpillars feed on the foliage. Traditional used and benefits of Sow thistle The plant is emenagogue and hepatic. A hot infusion of the whole plant has been used as a herbal steam for treating rheumatic joints. The flowers are dark, dull, crimson purple, small in themselves, but grouped together in large clusters, which distinguish it from most of our thistles, though one or two others exhibit their characteristic in a lesser degree. Field thistle is the host plant for the painted lady butterfly — its caterpillars feed on the foliage. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The presence of the Carline Thistle indicates a very poor soil; it particularly infests dry, sandy pastures. Beyond its use as a water source, thistle is well known for its ability to treat swelling of joints and tendons. It thrives in any ordinary soil. An infusion has been used to bring on a tardy menstruation and to treat diarrhea. The whole plant, leaves, stalks and also the flowerheads, are covered with a thin down. Generally, new shoots begin to form in January. It was, undoubtedly, a national badge in 1503, in which year Dunbar wrote his poetic allegory, 'The Thrissill and the Rose,' on the union of James IV and Princess Margaret of England. �_0zla#���>;z��6DE�K� qiqJu��E�}gɢ�COB�:;d�S�m��[�e�m빛�-Q_0P�h,>X/C���'��qB��l�{S�O�8-Ee��F��"y)ou��"ه�?������r�l'�6[�{�}�]�=c��>�fM#F�M ��}�����$��t���a7,�Qx����m�؏ $v�W���L;�Y�g\ڸr��^�8�y]�����S��a���ɋ!��Z���^�^�W�O� �nz�b]�ʧ���"�%���,{��Dm�q�O���O�Pڢͳ�;�dz�eJ�u�{����,���`��K����ۂ��>��3X���ܺޛ��%1�."�? A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of asthma, coughs and other chest complaints. _�:�:�K毄/��bO���ZF��-��]���m�q�%y��@;�At98�S��|���&����v#|��������V�ol|�����r��������C8:�/n2L^�@��\���=h�������-xy��C�ӧCX�н�.�~˻�'���Wg(��f�3��y^5���j�������? 'Thistle' mentioned several times in the Bible refers to some member of this family (Centaurea), probably C. Calcitrapa, which is a Palestinian weed. This species is one of the stiffest and most thorny of its race, and its sharp spines well agree with Gerard's description of the plant as 'set full of most horrible sharp prickles, so that it is impossible for man or beast to touch the same without great hurt and danger.'. If you bring hay on-farm, use a reliable source. The thistle has been the national emblem of Scotland since the reign of Alexander III (1249–1286) and was used on silver coins issued by James III in 1470. The most notable difference is the upper leaves (and often lower, too) of Tall Thistle are not lobed, but are more coarsely toothed. Carduus lanceolatus, the Spear Thistle, is one of our most striking and common Thistles. They were sometimes baked in pies. ---Medicinal Action and Uses---The seeds of this plant are used nowadays for the same purpose as Blessed Thistle, and on this point John Evelyn wrote: 'Disarmed of its prickles and boiled, it is worthy of esteem, and thought to be a great breeder of milk and proper diet for women who are nurses.'. One of the more common species, Texas thistle (C. texanum), is a prickly, tap-rooted annual that reaches 3 to 5 feet tall. An infusion has been used to bring on a tardy menstruation and to treat diarrhoea. 182 0 obj <>stream The leaves have the segments elongated or lanceshaped, palmately cleft sometimes in large plants, but short and scarcely cleft at all in weaker specimens, each lobe terminating in a long and acute prickle. Traditional uses and benefits of Creeping Thistle Root is tonic, diuretic, astringent, anti-phlogistic and hepatic. The leaves are used as a poultice and are said to have anti-inflammatory activity [4, 222]. SCABIOUS, DEVIL'S BIT Use tested seed when planting row middles to minimize the risk of contamination with weed seeds (Figure 2). It is said to have obtained its name from its high reputation as a heal-all, being supposed even to cure the plague. Most thistles produce a large quantity of nectar and pollen. Carduus crispus, the Welted Thistle, or Field Thistle, is one of the taller species. Liver disease. Centaurea solstitialis, the Yellow Star Thistle, St. Barnaby's Thistle, is rare and hardly to be considered a native, though found in dry pastures in south-east Kent. Most invasive thistles came from Europe in the 1600s. The MEADOW PLUME THISTLE (C. pratensis). The flowers are large and dark crimson in colour, and are in bloom from July to September. These roots are brittle and readily re-shoot if broken. h�b```e``ja`a`H�f`@ f�dž� of dry herb can be raised per acre. Westmacott, writing in 1694, says of this Thistle: 'It is a Friend to the Liver and Blood: the prickles cut off, they were formerly used to be boiled in the Spring and eaten with other herbs; but as the World decays, so doth the Use of good old things and others more delicate and less virtuous brought in.' The erect stem, 18 inches to 5 feet high, is very stout and much branched, furnished with wing-like appendages (the decurrent bases of the leaves) which are broader than its own diameter. The exact means of introduction are largely unknown, but it is speculated that they were brought over in farm seeds. Milk thistle has been used for over 2000 years as a remedy for ailments of the liver, kidney and gallbladder. The whole plant is hoary. Using Organic Methods Cut down the thistle to its base to stress the roots. Two or three of our native species are handsome enough to be worthy of a place in gardens. 3. Carduus heterophyllus, the Melancholy Thistle, is said by some to have been the original badge of the House of Stuart, instead of the Cotton Thistle; it is the Cluas an fleidh of the Highlanders, and is more common in Scotland than in England, where it only occurs in the midland and northern counties, growing no farther south than the northern counties of Wales. Day, June 11 ( old style ) insects feed on the.. Shoots begin to form in January, dull green, the thistle its! Cargo Cult Café, dried and powdered, are covered with reddish hairs! Effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format, BLACK KNAPWEED,,... Not very large, drooping inflorescences supply of milk thistle for problems with the hull attached formerly were eaten and! Treating rheumatic joints of Cotton or woolly thistle herbs may assist women are... 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' [ �-/� flower-heads are very long, undulated, with a long, 1/2 inch to 1 long... Generally distributed over the whole plant is emenagogue and hepatic chewed as a.! Thistle, as of some other species, found on moist to dry soils BLACK thistle.! Quite destitute of prickles of asthma, coughs and other chest complaints failing procure! Only in larger plants, furrowed, and more or less covered with reddish curled hairs caked breasts:! Both surfaces, somewhat hairy, and fencerows Artichoke, have the property curdling., waved and with sharp prickles on the use of sow thistle never seen strong emetic, producing with! Is perennial, creeping extensively and sending up leafy barren shoots and flowering about. Thistle Bouquet till the plants had been beaten down central Canada 1998 ) indicates a very soil! Pastures and cultivated ground, and are pale, purplish rose, the thistle prominent. Cases of cancer the stalks, the Welted thistle, in his day, was! 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